January - 1月（いちがつ）
New Year's Holidays - OShogatsu お正月 and Ganjitsu 元日 (or Gantan 元旦)
December 28 to January 4 and adjoining weekends. Arguably the most important holiday in Japan - all government, school, public or private organizations and companies are closed. Everyone goes home to visit relatives; the downtown of cities like Tokyo are deserted. However, many shops and stores such as convenience stores open even during the holidays.
Coming Of Age Day - Seijin no Hi 成人の日
The second Monday of January, a day of honour for those who have their 20th birthday. All of these "age of consent' adults are now legally allowed to smoke, drink and vote after this day.
February - 2月（にがつ）
National Foundation Day - Kenkoku Kinen Bi 建国記念日
February 11 is the commemoration of the founding of the Japanese nation.
March - 3月（さんがつ）
Spring Equinox - Shunbun no Hi 春分の日
March 20 or 21, an important period in the Buddhist calendar for paying respect to one's ancestors and also officially the first day of the spring season.
April - 4月（しがつ）
Showa Day 昭和の日
April 29 is the birthday of Emperor Showa (Hirohito). In 1989, after the death of Emperor Hirohito, considered a lover of nature, the day was declared a " Greenery Day ". And, in 2007, Greenery Day has been changed to Showa day.
May - 5月（ごがつ）
Golden Week ゴールデンウィーク
Several days at the end of April and/or the beginning of May which includes observed holidays and other celebration days that together make up a full week of holidays
Greenery Day - Midori No Hi みどりの日
Greenery Day was formerly on April 29. It has changed to May 4 in 2007.
Constitution Day - Kempo Kinembi 憲法記念日
May 3 commemorates the establishment of Japan's constitution in 1947.
Boy's Day - Kodomo no Hi こどもの日
The celebration day, May 5 of young boys in Japan. Very large carp streamers are hung from flagpoles outside of houses. The fish(carp) represent the courage and perseverance that young boys should have in life.
June - 6月 （ろくがつ）
July - 7月（しちがつ）
Marine Day - Umi no Hi 海の日
The third Monday in July
August - 8月（はちがつ）
Mountain Day - Yama no Hi 山の日
August 11 is Mountain day, a national holiday that has newly added in 2016, so people can take a bit longer holiday during Obon.
The Buddhist summer festival to honour the dead or welcome the spirits of the dead on their annual visits to the earthly world (July 13-16 in Tokyo and parts of eastern Japan or August 13-16 in rural areas and most parts of western Japan. O-Bon can also coincide with O-Chugen, the annual summer gift-giving time.
September - 9月（くがつ）
Respect for the Aged Day - Keirou no Hi 敬老の日
The third Monday in September
Autumn Equinox - Shubun no Hi 秋分の日
September 23 or 24 Similar to the Spring Equinox celebration.
October - 10月（じゅうがつ）
Health and Sports Day - Taiiku no Hi 体育の日
October 10 is a day to promote health and physical development; also a commemoration to the 1964 Olympics which were held in Tokyo.
November - 11月（じゅういちがつ）
Culture Day - Bunka no Hi 文化の日
November 3 is the birthday of the past emperor Meiji, considered the father of the Japan's modernization. In 1946 the holiday was renamed Culture Day; the holiday is an homage to Japan's growth as a nation.
Children's Day - Shichi-go-san 七五三
Each year on November 15, the 7, 5 and 3 years old children are celebrated throughout Japan. The "7 5 3" originates from a shinto rite which considers that these three ages are critical stages in an individual's life. (Children's Day is not a national holiday.)
Labour And Thanksgiving Day - Kinro Kansha no Hi 勤労感謝の日
November 23 is a day to appreciate and thank all those who ensure the country's economic prosperity by their daily work. Originally a thanksgiving Shinto ritual at the end of rice harvests.
December - 12月（じゅうにがつ）
Emperor's Birthday - Tenno Tanjobi 天皇誕生日
December 23 is the birthday of the Emperor